When the Spanish came to the Andes, they found an agricultural system that took advantage of the biological diversity of the Andes.
Roots and Tubers: the potato is the most famous example Peru's unique biological riches. But you also have to include the camote and several other roots and tubers that are less well known. Examples of flowers. For the final word on root crops in the Andes, check out the International Potato Center and its nine Andean roots and tubers - Buried Treasures.
Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation (1989) is an excellent online manuscript. This online resource contains a complete version of the book, which is now a classic. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 1989.
Women, Farmers and Andean Seeds examines how campesino women in Cajamarca developed the means to conserve seeds that guaranteed the viability of native varieties.
Quinoa ::: Behind the Scenes: Field Guide to Medicinal and Useful Plants of the Upper Amazon (or why I chose to write and publish this book) by Jim Castner